# 2 The Steiner Problem

Problem Specification

The ternary Steiner problem of order asks for sets with cardinality 3 such that every two of them share at most one element. The mathematical properties of the problem require that has to be either 1 or 3 [LR80].

Model

We create a list `Ss` of set variables and constrain every set to have a cardinality of 3 and to have an upper bound of . Further we require that the cardinality of the intersection of every two distinct sets in `Ss` must not exceed 1.

Distribution Strategy

Distribution simply takes the sets as they occur in `Ss` and adds resp. removes elements from them starting from the smallest element.

Solver

The solver is created by a function `Steiner` that takes the order of the Steiner problem as argument and checks if it is a valid order. In case it is valid it returns the actual solver with the list of solution sets as formal argument.

First, the list `Ss` is created and its elements' upper bounds and cardinalities are appropriately constrained. The nested loops built with `ForAllTail` and `ForAll` impose the constraint that every two sets share at most one element by stating that the cardinality of the intersection of two sets is in . Distribution is straightforward and uses the provided library abstraction `FS.distribute` for naive distribution..

`declare fun {Steiner N}   case       N mod 6 == 1 orelse N mod 6 == 3               then       proc {\$ Ss}           {FS.var.list.upperBound (N*(N-1)) div 6 [1#N] Ss}           {ForAll Ss proc {\$ S} {FS.card S 3} end}                       {ForAllTail Ss                                        proc {\$ S1|Sr}                                          {ForAll Sr                                            proc {\$ S2} S3 in                  S3 = {FS.intersect S1 S2}                            {FS.cardRange 0 1 S3}                             end}          end}                   {FS.distribute naive Ss}      end    else proc {\$ _} fail end    end end   `

Solving the Steiner problem of order 9 by invoking the Oz Explorer

`{ExploreOne {Steiner 9}}`

yields as solution

`[{1#3}#3 {1 4#5}#3 {1 6#7}#3 {1 8#9}#3 {2 4 6}#3 {2 5 8}#3    {2 7 9}#3 {3#4 9}#3 {3 5 7}#3 {3 6 8}#3 {4 7#8}#3 {5#6 9}#3].`

The search tree has depth 50, 4545 choice nodes, and 4521 failure nodes.

Improving the Model

A promising way to improve the efficiency of a constraint model (where the corresponding problem does not have a unique solution) is to break symmetries and thus to improve constraint propagation. Breaking symmetries can be achieved by imposing an order, in our case, an order on the set variables in `Ss`. We can simply interpret every set as a number with three digits to the base . A set with three elements can be mapped to an integer by .

Extending the Solver

The finite set library provides `FS.int.match` to match the elements of a set with a fixed number of elements to a vector of size of finite domain variables. This library constraint in conjunction with `Map` is used to convert the list of sets `Ss` to a list of finite domain lists with 3 finite domains per list. Finally the order between adjacent sets is imposed by

`N1N1*X1 + N1*X2 + X3 <: N1N1*Y1+ N1*Y2 + Y3`

employing a `ForAllTail` loop.

`local    N1 = N+1  N1N1 = N1*N1in    {ForAllTail {Map Ss fun {\$ S}                          {FD.list 3 1#N} = {FS.int.match S}                       end}    proc {\$ T}       case T of [X1 X2 X3]|[Y1 Y2 Y3]|_ then           N1N1*X1 + N1*X2 + X3 <: N1N1*Y1 + N1*Y2 + Y3       else skip end     end}end  `

This code is to be inserted right before the distribution. Solving the Steiner problem of order 9 results in the following search tree.

We see that the number of choice nodes decreases from 4545 to 565 and the number of failure nodes decreases from 4521 to 54. This reduction of the search space gives us a speed-up of about 7 and reduces the memory consumption by about 5.5.

Tobias Müller
Version 1.4.0 (20080702)